These in turn mate and the females lay eggs which overwinter on elm. Woolly apple aphid can also infest the stem and calyx end of the apples; the presence of live (or even dead) aphids in packed apples is a potential quarantine issue. Woolly apple aphid is a serious pest of apples, particularly young trees. Excerpt from the WSU Crop Protection Guide. When monitoring for woolly apple aphid, examine four pruning scars on each of 5 scaffold limbs per tree. These are not very noticeable after one year of feeding but increase in size as feeding continues in an area. During the era predominated by organophosphate use, it was not considered a serious pest, or at least one that was easily controlled. The bodies of these bark-feeding aphids are completely covered by masses of white, wool-like, waxy materials. Pruning and hail damage can create the wound sites for attack by this pest. Rept. 2010. It is too easy to miss the obvious. Winged females dispersing to elm give live birth to wingless males and females. Infested nursery stock is also a source for spreading aphids. Honeydew produced by the woolly apple aphid can drip onto the fruit resulting in sooty mold and downgrading of fruit because of blackened or russeted areas. The tree will begin to swell and form galls at the feeding sites.Â, As the number of aphids on the above ground portion of the tree increase, many work their way down to the roots and trunk below ground surface. There is evidence that sexual reproduction occurs on apple in New Zealand, but the importance of this has not been established. This increase is likely associated, to some extent, with changes in pesticide programs. Woolly aphid colonies are readily visible and visual inspection of the orchard is the main monitoring method. 1981. There is a persistent speculation that the winged forms may form part of the dispersal mechanism to other apple trees, but the meager evidence on this subject indicates that egg production on apple is rare, and the eggs fail to hatch. Use M111 or M106 if woolly apple aphid is a serious problem. Entomol. Journal of Insect Science. Woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Homoptera: Aphididae) is an important insect that infests apple orchards worldwide (Ateyyat & Al-Antary, 2009), and is considered to be critical to the economics of the apple industry (Bus et al., 2007). Long strands of white wax are produced that help to protect the colony of purple aphids from predators and pesticide sprays. Woolly Apple Aphid Aphid colonies are growing; treat early for best control When monitoring for woolly apple aphid, first check the edges of old pruning cuts. It can also overwinter as a young nymph on the above-ground part of the tree in protected areas on the trunk or main limbs. S123 Ag Science – North Woolly apple aphid occurred on the apple trees mainly as apterous virginoparae throughout the year and showed a preference for the lower part of the canopy and the trunk. They have been known The pest status of woolly apple aphid in the Pacific Northwest has varied over time. In addition, milder winters may improve overwintering survival, and contribute to earlier or higher populations. The cornicles are circular, and only slightly elevated from the surface of the abdomen. Colonies form at wound sites on trunks, limbs, and twigs, where they feed on tender bark. The first is to buy apple trees on rootstocks which are resistant to woolly aphid attack. The resistance is based on Malus robusta apple rootstock, and apparently confers a higher level of resistance than the older Malling-Merton series. Trees can have above-ground infestations of woolly apple aphid but no root infestations. 1960. Organophosphates have been replaced by other groups of pesticides (including IGRs, neonicotinoids, and other novel modes of action), which have little or no toxicity to woolly apple aphid, but may be equally toxic to its natural enemies. The woolly apple aphid reproduces sexually and asexually, and sexual reproduction requires both American elm and apple (or similar) trees. The presence of colonies on the current year’s extension growth is the critical factor an… Hoyt, S. C., and H. F. Madsen. Galls, or swollen enlargements, form on the plant where aphid colonies feed on twigs or roots. Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum, WAA) is native to eastern North America but now occurs on apple throughout the world.Young WAA nymphs have purple bodies covered with powdery gray wax. It is now distributed throughout the apple growing regions of the world where its importance as a pest varies. Nymphs on the roots move upward to provide a source of infestation if above-ground colonies do not survive the winter. A hover fly larva feeding on woolly apple aphids. Woolly aphid is usually easy to spot; Between spring and early autumn, infested parts of the trunk and branches are covered with a fluffy white waxy material. Roots of infested trees have large, abnormal swellings. Some apple varieties, such as Northern Spy, are resistant to this pest. Walker, J. T. S. 1985. Deng JiaQi, Rui GuangSheng, Guan YuTian, Yu YingQun, Zhang DongMin, Hong JianYuan, 1993. 1). The woolly aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum, is a serious worldwide apple pest. This is secreted by the blackish brown aphids; The thinner bark around old pruning cuts is a prime site for woolly aphid colonies in spring but by mid-summer the insect spreads to younger shoots For timings at which each pesticide can be used refer to the Crop Protection Guide. Besides apples, other hosts include pear, hawthorn, mountain ash and elm. While the causes for this can only be speculative, reducing the use of specific organophosphates in the delayed-dormant and mid-late summer (2nd generation codling moth) are plausible explanations. Woolly Aphid Control Natural predators for woolly aphids do exist and these include lady beetles and lacewings, however in sever infestation other remedies will need to be looked at. Much like other types of aphids, these sap-sucking insect pests are small (1/4 inch). Description: Adult aphids are approximately 1.5 mm long and … Dispersal behavior of the first instar nymphs of the woolly apple aphid. If we smash the aphids, a blood colored liquid comes out (this is how it gets it local name of "blood aphid." Always read the label before using any pesticide. Woolly apple aphid colonies produce honeydew, which results in development of black sooty mold. Woolly apple aphid eggs hatch in the spring creating a generation of wingless, parthenogenic viviparous females only on American elm trees. Other alternate hosts include hawthorn, mountain ash, and cotoneaster. The adults are winged and move to new locations where they lay egg masses. The woolly apple aphid. Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has been a pest of apple orchards in Washington State for over 100 yr, but since ≈2000, there has been an increase in the incidence and severity of outbreaks (S.D.C., personal communication). The adult is reddish-brown to purple. Bull. Woolly aphids are sucking insects that live on plant sap and produce a filamentous waxy white covering which resembles cotton or wool. Generally, monitoring should begin in midsummer or perhaps earlier if the winter was mild. It is a true bug and sucks sap from plants. The parasitoid Aphelinus mali is generally given the most credit for biological control of woolly apple aphid. Here is how to kill woolly aphids using a little bit of dish soap and water. Protect natural parasitoids. 1. Use of resistant apple rootstocks recommended. WAA is a reddish brown aphid covered with a white wax mass produced by specialized dermal glands. The woolly apple aphid may occur on the above-ground portions or roots of the apple tree. 39:(2):286-294. The aphid is collected by beating and this can indicate when low populations are present which have otherwise been missed. Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Order Hemiptera, Family Aphididae; aphids or plant lice Native pest Host plants: Apple is preferred, but elm, hawthorn, mountainash, and pear are also susceptible. It has been stated that interrupting the movement of crawlers from the root colonies to the aerial parts of the tree should prevent the formation of aerial colonies, but preliminary research has shown that this is not the case, at least in small plots; either overwintering survival on aerial portion of the tree, or reinfestation from nearby trees may be responsible. The use of some products may not be legal in your state or country. Some organic pesticides including pyrethrum sprays and horticultural oils can be used to control smaller infestations, in commercial orchards systemic pesticides are the solution. The nymphs often form large cottony masses on twigs, for protection from predators. The woolly mass will often be seen on the spurs or branches that have been pruned as well as within cracks in the bark. 859-257-4772, Students   /   This stage is known as the crawler. Damage: Woolly aphid infestations cause galls to form. Predators, such as lady beetles, hover fly larvae, and lacewing larvae can completely destroy the colony, but the waxy residue will remain. Pruning and hail damage can create the wound sites for attack by this pest. Lexington, KY 40546-0091 To aware apple growers of the state, Dr Rakesh Kumar, Department of Entomology, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni has come up with a detail suggestion of controlling the Woolly Apple Aphid. Aphid forms inhabiting above-ground parts of the apple tree are most common in mid-summer and fall. A colony appears as a cottony mass generally clustered in wounds and pruning scars on the trunk and branches of the tree. College of Agriculture, Food and Environment. In New Zealand, it is considered a serious pest, causing reduced tree growth and contamination of fruit. It can occasionally also be found in pear, quince and a few other woody Rosaceae. However, woolly aphids, which are green or blue, also appear fuzzy due to the white, waxy material that covers their body. Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) colonization on Malus cultivars. In areas where this species of elm occurs, elm is the overwintering host, and apple is one of several summer (or alternate) hosts. The same should be true of the Geneva rootstocks. 5:27. Cummins, J. N., P. L. Forsline, and J. D. Mackenzie. The woolly apple aphid causes the formation of nodules on the woody parts of trees and roots (D). Hilgardia. Aphid forms inhabiting above-ground parts of the apple tree are most common in mid-summer and fall. Management. Articles from the Tree Fruit website may only be republished with prior author permission © Washington State University. Woolly aphids occur throughout the Northern Hemisphere. So, you will find them at the base of leaves of many trees. This aphid has historically been considered an occasional apple pest in Ontario, but is now seen more frequently in orchards. The latter is considered an important predator of woolly apple aphid in Washington and worldwide. Woolly Apple Aphid Management The woolly apple aphid (WAA), Erisoma lanigerum has historically been considered an occasional apple pest in Ontario, but is now seen more frequently in orchards. WAA have a complex life cycle that can involve overwintering either on apple or elm. PREVENTING WOOLLY APHIDS IN APPLE TREES There are two main actions you can take to reduce the likelihood of a woolly aphid attack. During the summer, repeated woolly apple aphids generations of wingless individuals are produced. There are four nymphal instars, averaging 0.64, 0.67, 1.2, and 1.3 mm in length. The nodules can split and develop into cankers. It is the feeding on the roots that produces the greatest damage. Care must be taken to anticipate a fall outbreak and ensure that the preharvest interval of the pesticide is observed. 5. In the fall, winged individuals are produced which fly to search for elms on which to lay overwintering eggs, while some wingless forms may remain on both above and below ground parts of the apple tree throughout the winter. Reprint articles with permission must include: Originally published by Washington State Tree Fruit Extension Fruit Matters at treefruit.wsu.edu and a link to the original article. Apply them only to plants, animals, or sites listed on the labels. The aerial colonies can be found in several locations … Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 106(1):26-30. Patch, E. M. 1912. Add a few other ingredients to this woolly aphids treatment to make the solution stronger if you have a bad infestation. They are brown or greyish-purple in colour, although this is usually masked by the wax. The woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), is a reddish brown insect covered with a white wax mass produced by specialized dermal glands. Egg-laying wounds by the periodical cicada are ideal sites for infestation. Research   /   In severe winters above-ground colonies may be killed. Hortic. Whereas A. mali leaves behind evidence of parasitism in the form of mummies, the important role of predators can be overlooked because they consume all or part of the colony, leaving no trace of their activities. The most resistant, commonly available rootstock is MM106. 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